Category: EU4 Mod

Honours Blog #16 – Bay of Wines

With the Lencenor region being essentially the entire Kingdom of Lorent I decided that to help balance out the game I needed to include some rival independent lords that would stand in the Lorentish King’s way. In Europa Universalis 4 France is sometimes regarded as the “big blue blob” as they often become very powerful and take over a lot of provinces and countries (becoming a huge blue blob on the map) – however this is delayed for a few years as France in 1444 is not fully united:

France in the 1444 start
  • -The Duchy of Provence owns 4 provinces within France proper, as well as a Personal Union (meaning they control) the 2-provinces of Lorraine in Germany
  • -The Kingdom of England owns 7 provinces in the north and south of France, a remnant of their Angevin Empire and also acause of the Hundred Years War
  • -The Duchy of Burgundy owns another 6 provinces and 3 minor countries in the Netherlands
  • -Brittany still remains an independent nation and not part of the French Kingdom at all

With this France has to first finish the Hundred Years War and take back land from England, as well as figure out how to deal with Provence and Burgundy to take all the lands in the French Region under their control. In addition they’ll have to decide whether to take on Brittany (and whomever their allies are) and create the modern French borders we know.


With consideration to this, I decided to do the same with Lorent! Lorent on its own is even more of a powerhouse than France will be, as the region in my world is even larger and full of more provinces: so I’ll have to bring this divided kingdom theme up to 10.


The Wine Lords of Lorent

With this I was adding trade_goods (such as grain, iron, or wine) to provinces and remembered that one of France’s main exports is wine! So I decided to play around with that as a reason for powerful lords to rise up against their King: The Wine Lords of Lorent.

I knew that many famous wines were essentially named after their home region (Champagne, Armagnac, etc) and decided I could kill two birds with one stone: I was having issues with naming provinces and now I can put a name to a Wine Lord!

With that I went through various names to essentially find out what kind of fictional wines worked best. By then I had already created the Duchy of Sorncóst (meaning Southcoast in my version of Elven) and decided that a “glass of Sorncóst” works pretty well. I also had another country (not in Lorent but might as well) Pearlsedge and decided having a white wine called “Pearl” sounds cool too, and thus the “Pearl Vintage” and “Pearl Modern” was born, and with it the provinces of “Old Pearlywine” and “New Pearlywine” respectively.

I also had a prominent river running from Lorentainé (the capital of Lorent, meaning Lorent-by-the-river) westwards to Deranne that had more wine lords such as Rubenaire (meaning Ruben’s City), Madelaire (meaning Madaléin’s City) and Eilísin (meaning Eilísbrook) that were dotted along the river.

Though I did have an issue at first: the river flowed west and up and the Bay of Wines was south – so how did that add up?

I ended up moving the river to flow south and exit at the Bay of Wines instead!

Development Map essentially shows how rich a province is, green meaning richer (note how the Bay of Wines is much richer than the other provinces nearby, such as the Lorentish Flats to the west near Parma)


Trade Goods Map showing the Bay of Wines

Note the wine-making provinces along the Bloodwine River (that flows through all the major cities above) and the poorer trade good provinces that make grain in the Lorentish Flats to the west.

The same political map as shown before

Of course the Wine Lords aren’t much of a threat if they are relegated to just the Bloodwine River and the Bay of Wines, so I gave them other provinces throughout Lorent.

Here we can see Rubenaire flow south into the lands of Sorncóst (a Wine Lord that has no power in the Bay of Wines, which will be a possible objective for them) as well as provinces to the north of Rubyhold up north. Eilísin also has provinces west in the Lorentish Flats as well as some within the Empire of Anbennar itself right next to Wesdam. I also made Madelaire a Personal Union partner of the Imperial Duchy of Wesdam so that Lorent will have to fight their former allies, Wesdam, as well as The Empire of Anbennar if they want to truly unify all Lorentish lands.

Other players in the Bay of Wines include Wineport, the richest wine city of them all ruled by merchants who export the other’s wine above, as well as the Minaran Temple – a religious group following the Minara, the Goddess of Celebrations and Lust, who have also been an active player in the wine business. The Minaran Temple came about as I was looking at the history of wines and realized that many monks made wine in their spare time, with the most famous being Dom Pérignon.



Amerine, M. (n.d.) Wine, Encylopedia Britannica. Available at: (Accessed: 26 October 2017).

Big Blue Blob – Europa Universalis 4 Wiki (2017) Available at: (Accessed: 26 October 2017).

French wines and wine regions of France (2017) Available at: (Accessed: 26 October 2017).



Honours Blog #14 – Fleshing the game out + Lencenor Overview

I’ve been working for the past few days on fleshing out what I had shown in the Progress Presentation, namely adding custom provinces and some more custom countries in the Lencenor region (aka that section I have in the map thats filled in right now)

Map shown in the Progress Presentation
Map with modified provinces and new countries

Western Cannor/Lencenor Region

For this post I’ll talk about this region of the world: Lencenor (or as its known in modern-times, Western Cannor – Cannor being the continent equivalent to Europe). The region encompasses the land to the west of the Dameshead (which is that little inland sea with the island to the right of Wesdam, it looks like a woman’s head)

This region is dominated by the Kingdom of Lorent and before that was a region ruled by the Damerian Republic (essentially the Roman Empire proxy in this world) whom the Lorentish peoples were subjugated under. The region is pretty homogeneous with the vast majority of the humans being of Lorentish (aka Lencori) descent, and the northern part of the region populated by halfling peoples. Religiously the land follows the Cannorian Pantheon wholeheartedly.

Geographically the land is filled with farmlands and various temperate woodlands distributed across, with the most notable being the Redglades Forest in the center of the region. To the southwest lies the Lorentish Flats, a vast region of flatlands and farmlands in which the Lorentish love for horsemanship was born. There aren’t many mountains in this region besides the Ruby Mountains (occupied by the dwarves of Rubyhold), other than that most of the land’s rivers flows from further up via the Dragonheights (located above Nimscodd on the map). The Bloodwine River flows through the southern portion of Lorent, originating from the Ruby Mountains, and ends at the Bay of Wines – where Lorent’s main economic export flourishes.

In the northern half of Lencenor lies the Small Country, the land of halflings that has since been divided between Lorent and its rival Gawed (barely seen in this map). The Widderoy river forms a natural boundary between Lorent and Gawed and flows out into the Dameshead near Beepeck. The Widderoy’s sister, the Portroy flows westwards instead, forming Lorent’s other northern boundary, which flows to the Western Seas as the Gnomish city of Portnamm (the light green on the map)


Recent History

In recent history the region was a battleground between the Grand Duchy of Dameria (from the Empire of Anbennar that surrounds the Dameshead) and the Kingdom of Lorent during the Lilac Wars, a set of dynastic wars of succession on over who should be the new Lorentish King. Lorent eventually emerged victorious and Dameria was destroyed by its Lorentish enemies and its Imperial rivals, with its lands partitioned between them.

However the recent end of the war in 1443, a year behind the game starts, has vastly weakened Lorent and has shown the world that this once formidable kingdom is a shadow of its former self. The House of the Seaflower, the Dukes of Deranne, stand rebellious and more powerful than ever and have refused to swear alliegance to the Lorentish King. The Wine Lords of Rubenaire, Eilísin and Sorncóst along the Bloodwine River grow fat and powerful and too refuse the King’s calls; and the Imperial Duchy of Wesdam, the surviving fragment of Dameria (and a former ally of the Lorentish against their own Damerian brethren!) has recently acquired the Wine Duchy of Madaléin, taking former Lorentish lands into Imperial hands once more.

Lencenor at the 1444 start is a Kingdom Divided and the nations within will have to fight it out and unify Lorent once more, though the northern powerhouse of Gawed and its Lorent’s Imperial neighbours to the east might have something to say about that…





Honours Blog #12 – Finishing off the Vertical Slice for the Progress Presentation

For the past 1-2 weeks i’ve been working on a Vertical Slice for the mod as well as getting back into EU4 modding in general. I’ve shown off what I had so far in Honours Blog #10 so this post will cover mostly the creation of my own custom countries, provinces, cultures and religions as well as the localisation related!

And if you’re curious, here’s what it looks like in-game so far:





For the sake of simplicity i’ll be covering how I made one of each of the examples above

Making a Country

Thanks to Cyridius’ guide on Making a Nation this was pretty straightforward, with the only real issues being the multiple files needed for making a country:

(Top Left) common/countries, (Bottom Left) common/country_tags, (Right) history/countries



So to make a country you need:

  • common/countries needs a text file with the country name, eg “Lorent”
  • common/country_tags needs to have the new country’s tag added, eg “A01 = ‘countries/Lorent.txt'” meaning tag A01 leads to the Lorent file above
  • history/countries needs a text file with the tag and country name, eg “A01 – Lorent”
  • gfx/flags needs a .tga image file named as the tag, eg the image “A01” will contain the flag graphic for Lorent


Making a Province

In addition to the provinces RGB map you need a .txt file that links to each RGB value, and within that .txt file is the modifiable stats and variables relating to the province. For example the “38 – Riga.txt” relates to the province of Riga.

Old Riga file
Edited Riga file

The text files to the left show two versions of Riga, with the first image being the original vanilla province and the second being a modified custom version

As you can see instead of the owners being RIG (aka Riga) it is now A01 (which in our case translates to Lorent)

Several other things have been changed such as cultures and religions (which we’ll get to later) as well as the three main stats: tax, production and manpower – as well as thr type of trade good

Some stuff remains unchanged like the capital = “Riga” but will certainly be changed once I come up with names (note capital = “Riga” does not change the province name but acts like a description)

There’s other special modifiers here too like the dauvaga_estuary_modifier – when I make a province properly i’ll either have to delete these (if the province has no estuary, which is likely the case) or make my own modifier which is as simple as changing the name, for example test_estuary_modifier.

As i’m not remaking the definitions (which had province IDs and RGB values) I need to keep the default province names, apparently if I rename “34 – Riga” into something else the game won’t recognize it and just use the vanilla “34 – Riga” file


Making a Culture

Each province has a culture, and each country has a primary culture and accepted secondary cultures.

To create my own cultures I copied and pasted the base “0_cultures.txt” and renamed it to “anb_cultures.txt” which makes it seperate from the vanilla ones when the game is loaded. This also means that those existing vanilla cultures are still there in my mod but of course they eventually wont be used, the only reason I chose to keep the “0_cultures.txt” instead of overwriting it is to prevent any dependency issues (for example, X event refers to French cultures – what happens if I use the event but french cultures dont exist?)



At its core the cultures.txt file is comprised of:

  • -a culture group, eg “germanic” or in this case “lencori”
  • -cultures within that group, eg “austrian” or in this case “high_lorentish”
  • -dynasty_names within the culture group or culture, which informs what surnames your rulers can have
  • -male and female names, which does a similar thing as above




Making a Religion

The last thing we need to finish off our showcase is a religion! Again, each province has a religion and each country has a religion (for example France is Catholic, the Ottomans are Sunni Muslim)

personal deities

As this is a fantasy mod, my main inspiration for the deities was your classic pantheon of gods which were both prominent in real-life such as the Roman, Greek and Norse Gods or in fantasy like the gods of Dungeons & Dragons’ Forgotten Realms. I’ve already worked out a rough idea of the main gods of the cannorian_pantheon so all I need is to put them in game!

Each religion has different mechanics and in our case the most suitable mechanic was the hinduism religion, which makes use of the personal_deity mechanic allowing players to select a new patron god every time they get a new ruler

Again, like the cultures, I didn’t replace the existing “0_religions.txt” but made my own “anb_religions.txt” (anb meaning Anbennar) to keep dependency errors to a minimum


The image to the far left is essentially a copied and pasted version of the hinduism religion but with different names



In addition to that, I need to make my own variant of the personal_deity, like other Paradox modding all you need for this is editing a text file once again. The image to the right shows that off, with the deity castellos and the_dame showing different benefits if you pick them as your patron (eg Castellos grants -1 unrest)


Putting it all together

With that sorted I went through various provinces and created custom variants of my own for the mod, changing the owners and other stats as shown, ending up with this below:

See the Blog Post #13 – Progress Presentation Feedback for more pictures

As you can see there’s some custom countries in there like Deranne, the aforementioned Lorent, Redglades and others.

There’s also existing vanilla EU4 countries like Milan and Sweden in there as they hold a small number of provinces, for this demonstration I wanted to focus on big countries to create and show off.

My next plan is to flesh this region out more and add the rest of the countries (so we dont have vanilla ones) as well as changing all the names of the provinces



Honours Blog #10 – The Map I had in 2014 vs The Map I have now

As mentioned before, I initially attempted to create an EU4 Fantasy Total Conversion mod back in 2014, shortly before I university and for the early parts of 1st year.

Back in 2014 I had an entirely different map, but from then and now you’ll be able to see that I carried a few choice pieces from over the years:

The map in 2014 was created through random generation in Photoshop via a tutorial like this.

However I ended up starting again (honestly I don’t remember why, maybe because the geology was off or I needed to make it more manually?) and ended up with a new map shortly after in 2015. As such the 2017 had had much more polish to it and much more stuff besides the files needed for EU4 (such as locations of cities, etc)

(Top) Map in 2014, (Bottom) Map in 2017 – Click to Zoom!

Points of Interest

I’ll be referring to each point of interest annotated on the map from left to right:

  • Artificial Circle
    • -In 2014 this was a small circle at the center of the Western Continent
    • -In 2017 I made this the defining piece of the continent, it kind of acts like a the Caribbean but even more encompassing of the region. I also made it look a bit more natural but keen-eye’d players should be able to notice that something’s off with the place: it’s not natural at all.


  • Large Inland Sea / Cool Narrow Sea

    • -In 2014 I had this huge vertical inland sea west of the Dameshead, I thought this was really cool as it allowed from a different way to look at the Mediterranean gameplay you see in EU4. This idea also had a very interesting narrow sea to the south of the Dameshead, which would mean ships would have to navigate a densely populated sea region to go to the Eastern Continent
    • -In 2017 both of these is no more, instead I have a more traditional Mediterranean region and your typical West African coast to navigate around. Honestly this is the only thing I would change with the map, I felt that the vertical inland sea would have brought a lot more new things to the plate but any attempts to add it didn’t really work out. Instead I have a Cool Lakes region which is a reimagining of “What if the Canadian Great Lakes were more populated and connected to the sea?”


  • Dameshead
    • -In 2014 the Dameshead was a coincidence and decided to roll with it as it seemed like a cool geographical phenomenon. Plus it adds a kind of central sea-hub region for the game, worldbuilding-wise the Dameshead becomes a very important trade center and pretty much the center of civilization for much of history. It pretty much also inspired one of the main gods of the setting: The Dame.
    • -In 2017 I kept the Dameshead as a defining piece of the land but rotated it west. Within my story the elves came from the western continent so I thought it’d be symbolic that the main feature of their new land is a head looking west to their home.


  • Transylvania
    • -In 2014 I created a place that would serve as an isolated realm, surrounded by mountains and inhopsitable swamps. I was quite into Gothic Horror and I played a lot of the Ravenloft setting in Neverwinter Nights back then
    • -In 2017 it’s still there but I moved it to a move centralized location, as Eastern Europe was in the past, and a gateway between east and west. The marsh swampland now encompasses most of the region and serves as a brutal and deadly battleground


  • Dwarven Mountains
    • -You cant have a fantasy setting without dwarves right?! In 2014 I created a large mountainous region up north where you could have gameplay of mountain interiors and dwarven holds – this was really cool and different but my only issue was that it was relatively isolated and players wouldn’t interact with anyone at all
    • -In 2017 I opted out of the large internal mountain region and just created a huge continent-spanning mountain range (The Serpentspine Mountains), I felt that I could still do the internal mountain hold provinces but on a smaller scale – but at least in this version dwarven players get a lot of exposure to other nations


  • Egypt/Mesopotamia
    • In 2014 I just combined them both into one region, but it due to the split nature of the southern continents it the area overall felt really small and isolated – in both old and new maps this region will be inhabited by the sun elves after their arrival from the west.
    • In 2017 I split the region into two instead, with a larger desert area connecting the both of them – this opened up a lot more opportunities for their histories to intertwine without being the same – also I wanted an Egypt analogue to coexist with their sun elven neighbours in the present day


  • Equator
    • -In 2014 I wasn’t really thinking of the map as one piece but solely focuses on the central continent (named Cannor) so its much lower
    • -In 2017 its much higher now and about the middle of the map, so it allows for more variety in environments


  • Province Map
    • -As you can see in 2014 I had done the province map for the main region of Cannor, including the Dwarven Holds in the north
    • -In 2017, since i’ve only started recently for this honours project, I’ve only done Western Cannor but its much denser than the one before – i’ve also added some sea provinces to surround the provinces i’ve made


So what does the map look like in Photoshop?

My Photoshop File

I’ve extended my layers file to illustrate how much there is in the Photoshop File, as you can see I have every single map file needed in there and I just export them as different Index’d .bmps – also note other miscellaneous layers more related to worldbuilding such as Places – Cannor (which contain the names on the picture above) and History (which contains general political maps through various periods of time)

Honours Blog #9 – EU4 Map Modding Basics

Map Modding Basics

As in all strategy games, the map is the very core of the game. This goes the same for Europa Universalis IV and this mod!

As the next few posts relating to the mod development will be map-centric I thought it’d be a good idea to familiarize any readers with making an EU4 map works and what kind of files and maps you actually need.

The EU4 Map

The core map files

To make the map above you will need at the very minimum a:

  • -Heightmap and Normal Map
  • -Terrain Map
  • -Rivers Map
  • -Trees Map
  • -Color Map
  • -Province Map

The first steps I took to making the Mod was to create my own version of the above.

So what do these even mean? Well keep reading and i’ll tell you!


Height Map and Normal Map

(Left) Heightmap, (Right) Normal Map

If you’re familiar with 3D modeling then this is pretty much what you’d expect:

The grayscale Heightmap handles the elevation of the terrain in the 3D in-game map, with whiter shades being higher elevation and darker being lower.

The Normal Map (also known as a bump map) is generated from the Heightmap and accentuates differences in elevation by creating a fake lighting shadow effect

In terms of EU4 and other Paradox games if you have a plain heightmap with the basic gray for land and darker gray for water and no other elevation, you’ll end up with a flat map – which is perfectly fine if you’re looking for the absolute minimum in creating a total conversion mod.

Also, heightmaps need to be in grayscale mode but if you just convert it normally in Photoshop (Image -> Mode -> Grayscale) i’ve found that it makes the image fuzzy and not pixel-perfect. An alternate I found is to do it via Indexing (Image -> Mode -> Indexed Color -> Grayscale).

Terrain Map

EU4’s Terrain Map


The Terrain Map affects the game both mechanically and visually:

  • -Mechanically, it determines which terrain type each province is (for example a province in the desert will have the ‘desert’ terrain in-game which will effect how prosperous the province is or how many soldiers can fight on it at once or how quick armies can move across it)
  • -Visually, whatever terrain type you put on this map also shows up in-game – if you place the desert terrain on the map, then it’ll look like a desert in-game

Like other maps used in EU4 the Terrain Map uses Indexing, in which the file is restricted to a specific RGB colour palette which translates to something in-game, if you don’t index your map properly (or use the wrong index) then any attempts in loading the game will crash. Remembering to index your files is an early lesson any modder using Paradox’s Clausewitz Engine will learn.

An example of the colour index in the Terrain Map is Desert (206 169 99), Plains (86 124 27) and Hills (0 86 6).

You could potentially add more terrains by editing the terrain.txt but I given my setting is set in a world where geology and earth sciences are pretty much the same, I don’t really need to!


Rivers Map

EU4’s Rivers Map

Much like the Terrain Map before, the Rivers Map also has its own colour Index and also informs the engine both mechanically and visually:

  • -Mechanically any province that has a river flowing through it will get a River Crossing Penalty modifier, which effects rolls in combat (covered in Honours Blog #8)
  • -Visually: there’s rivers of the map!

As for the colour index there are several types of blue which indicate the size and width of the river, the darker the blue the stronger and wider the river. There are also other colours such as Red, Green and Yellow which handle where the rivers join together, where rivers start, and where rivers diverge in deltas, respectively.

Another thing of note is that all rivers must be 1-Pixel-Thick, so if you have a bit of your river thats accidentally got 2-pixels then it wont show up! Paradox map modding is all about being pixel-perfect!


Worldbuilding Rivers 101

In terms of worldbuilding, one thing learned from /r/worldbuilding is rivers actually work:

  • -Rivers don’t diverge, they converge – meaning Rivers dont split, they join!
  • -Rivers flow from the highlands to the lowlands and always follow the path of least resistance – the end of rivers will always be one exit (Delta’s like the Nile is an exception!)
  • -Rivers don’t link two oceans together, aka you cant have a river that goes from the the north of France at the English Channel all the day to the south of France and link to the Mediterranean – this is because its not really a river anymore, you just made a really narrow ocean and split France into two islands!
  • -Rivers are like trees, at the mouth of it you have a large trunk which leads to the ocean and as you go up you go to branches then to twigs

This might be simple enough when you read it, but a lot of novice worldbuilders who don’t look into these kind of things make this mistake all the time!


Trees Map

EU4’s Trees Map









Same thing as last time, the Trees Map has indexes which indicate the types of trees we have: in general the green trees are temperate forests and the blueish-green are the coniferous huge pine trees we see in places like Canada and Russia.

For some reason the Trees Map is of a different size and resolution than the other maps which causes a bit of an issue in making trees appear exactly where you want them, eventually I realised that I could simply resize my own trees map to the size used here and work on it from there.


Design change relating to trees and terrain placement

Players were often confused whether a province had this terrain or that terrain, or if they were forested or not so Paradox has recently changed their design ethos surrounding both trees as well as terrain:

  • -Instead of trees and terrain overlapping into several provinces like real life, trees and terrain will be influenced by the actual province shape itself.
  • -This means that Marshland provinces will clearly have majority or the entirety of its shape filled with Marshland terrain, and this also goes to Forest province – which will be entirely covered in trees.

While this does go against the believably and realism, it does help the player discern better what they are getting into with a glance instead of having to properly click the province and examine its terrain type

This of course will influence my worldbuilding and development of the map (aha! a link to the dissertation!)

  • -Essentially, the bounds of forests and terrain will be influenced by the shape of the province I make or vice versa, depending on where I had previously said “This place will have a forest, or this place will have a marsh” the shape of the provinces I draw will have to conform mostly to that idea


Color Map

EU4’s Spring Color Map, there’s one for each season! (note America is missing as EU4 has a Random New World option where you get a unique America instead of the one we all know and love)

The Color Map is purely aesthetic and adds the detail you want in your map. The Terrain Map alone only does the minimal and just tiles the same terrain type over and over again so the Color Map helps hide that and makes this look more natural.

I’m still not sure how I’ll do this yet (as my map is made-up, after all!) but this will be something I tackle later on as it’s not really needed to get the mod up-and-running.


Province Map

EU4’s Provinces Map

The bread-and-butter of all Paradox strategy games.

The Province Map does not conform to Index colours like the ones before but it does care greatly about RGB values:

  • -Each province has a unique RGB that is used to refer to it
  • -This links to the definitions file which has every single province in their game, their Province ID and what RGB value that ID is associated with

You can always add new provinces in the definitions by simply editing it, adding a new ID and a new RGB colour (which this handy tool helps you with)


Provinces and Map Overhauls

In terms of development I was conflicted on how to handle this, I had to make my own province map but I didn’t know how to go about it: I was either going to:

  • -Create my own custom definitions file and make up RGB colours as I go
  • -or just use the same colours as the existing one, and just edit the province.txt files later

In the end I decided to go with the latter, as it allowed me to fill out provinces faster as I just had to colour pick, paint and go to the next colour

This would mean that when I start up my mod and have the existing province RGB’s used, the provinces will correlate to the EU4 provinces (eg i’ll have a Paris province in my mod). This can be fixed by editing its specific province.txt file (which we’ll cover in the next next EU4 Mod post)

How I organize my province painting

Thanks to a handly little Province ID map I was guided to (here), I overlayed that ontop of the basic province map so I know which colours go with which ID:

  • Black areas are province i’ve already used in my own Province Map
  • The process goes like this:
    • -Find the next ID along and what color it is
    • -Use Color Picker tool to get the color
    • -Fill in the used province with Black
    • -Go to my Province Map and draw a new province
    • -Rinse and Repeat

A problem I’ll face later on is not knowing what ID my provinces are when I go about changing their names and statistics, but I can just bring back the default Province Map (without any black filled in areas) and try to compare colors and IDs from there or more likely I can get rid of the province name localisation files which will turn each province’s name in game to something like this: PROV1, PROV2, PROV300, etc




EU4 Provinces Colorpicker (2017) Available at: (Accessed: 26 October 2017).

Map modding – Europa Universalis 4 Wiki (n.d.) Available at: (Accessed: 26 October 2017).

“Master Modding Guides List” (2013) forum.paradoxplaza. Available at: (Accessed: 26 October 2017).